About us
Our dogs
The Cane Corso
Puppy pictures
Pups available
Cane Corso Forum
Pedigree database

Up Hip Dysplasia CHD ratings compared Elbowdysplasia Movement Teeth Cherry Eye

The following article is duplicated from the Dutch Kennel Club’s brochure, department GGW (the former WK Hirschfeld Stichting).

Hipdysplasia is a development disorder from the hip-joints, due to hereditary and environmental influences. Some dog are severely bothered by this. There are also dogs with more or less severe deformations of the hip-joints, who don’t seem to be bothered by this at all. The judgement of the gait of these dogs gives insufficient information about the condition of the hip-joints.
More information can be gathered with the help of x-rays.

The rating panel
One of the functions of the HD-panel from the Dutch Kennelclub, department Health, Behaviour and Wellbeing (GGW), is the rating of x-rays of the hip-joints from dogs. The x-rays, the so called HD x-rays can be made by every veterinarian which has a contract with the GGW. HD x-rays are all rated together by an in construction changing panel of three qualified judges. The objective rating of the x-rays, which is so important for CHD prevention, is secured as good as possible this way. The rating of HD x-rays has the purpose to give information to the breeders and breedclubs who use information of hypdisplasia in their breeding selection programs. X-rays which come in at the GGW department will be rated in the week after delivery. After the GGW received the rating costs, the results are send, unless the x-rays did not meet with the technical demands.

HD x-rays
For a good rating of the hip-joints, two x-rays are needed from the dog, laying on his back:
- one x-ray with stretched rear paws (position I), and
- one x-ray with the rear paws bend forward and spread (position II). In both positions the dog has to lay exactly straight. For the reliability of the ratings, high demands are needed in quality and documentation (identification) from these x-rays. If these demands are not reached, the veterinarian who made the x-rays will be informed, with a note about what was not correct and a request to make new x-rays. Such a request is send immediately after the rating of the x-rays and is at the latest within two weeks after GGW received the x-ray, at the veterinarian’s. He should contact the owner of the dog to make a appointment for new x-rays. The rating of these new x-rays will not be charged.

On the certificate-Hipdysplasia-Research you will find the definitive rating, the F.C.I.-rating, and several indications which explain the definitive rating. The rating HD- (HD A, = negative) means that the dog is clear of hipdysplasia, which does however not mean that the dog is no “carrier” of the condition. HD tc (HD B, = transitional changes) means that some slight changes have been found on the x-rays, which should be accounted for by CHD, but in breeding programs have no direct meaning. The rating HD ± (HD C, = slightly positive) or HD + (HD D, = positive) mean that changes, which do fit the CHD condition, are found in the dog.
When the hip joints are severely deformed, the rating HD++ (HD E, = positive optima forma) will be given.

The F.C.I.-rating is a translation of the HD-rating to international values, which makes it possible to compare HD-results from other F.C.I. countries.

The rating of the different parts
At the rating of HD x-rays, they check the form of the hipsocket and femurhead, the depth of the socket, the closure of the femurhead in the socket and the presence of arthritis on the edges of the hip-joints. Information on the depth of the socket and the closure of the femurhead in the socket is gathered from the so called “Norbergwaarde” (=Norbergvalue), which is measured on the x-ray in position I. The Norbergvalue from the left and the right hip are added and together they give the on the certificate mentioned “sum Norbergvalue”. From a normal hip-joint the Norbergvalue is at least 15, the sum Norbergvalues from both hips are therefore at least 30. Dogs with a too low Norbergvalue have either undeep sockets and/or a bad closure of the joint-parts. These dogs will get a less good HD-rating. A normal or even high Norbergvalue does not necessarily mean that the dog has good hip-joints. A combination of deep sockets and incongruention of the joint closure (not everywhere the same closure) or insufficient closure of the joint-parts, can even at a high Norbergvalue, lead to a (slight)-HD-positive rating. On the certificate, this is marked by “insufficient” or “bad” closure. Information about the depth of the socket is also gathered by judging how the centre of the socket is placed compared to the upper edge of the socket. Next to the Norbergvalue, the depth of the socket and the closure of the joint-parts, the ratings are also influenced by “bone-deformation”. There is a direct link between the grade of the bone-deformation and the rating: very slight bone-deformation (1) will lead to an HD tc (HD B), slight (2) bone-deformation will lead to an HD ± (HD C) and severe (3) bone-deformation will lead to an HD + (HD D) rating. The note “form changes” usually means a more or less obvious flattening from the edge of the socket. The presence of this is noted, but if this is the only note about the joints, this does not have a sufficient meaning in the end result.

All information together will lead to the definitive rating, where the less good part has the most important influence. One certain HD-rating can be made from only the depth of the sockets, the closure of the joint-parts, the presence of arthritis, or from a combination of two or all three parts, and this is mentioned on the certificate.

Repeating the HD-research
Every owner can have a new HD-research done after a minimum of 1 year. The score, which will come from this, will replace the earlier score from the moment the new rating is done. Repeating the research can only positively influence the result if the dog has been research at the age of 1 or 1.5 years of age, and where a slight positive rating had been given because of bad closure, with or without that low Norbergvalue, while there was no bone-deformation.

The Norbergvalue
They take the centre of both femurheads (1) and these centres are connected with a line. In both hip-joints a line is drawn from through the centre to the edges of the socket (2). The angles (3) that both lines make with each other, minus 90, will give the Norbergvalue for that particular hip-joint. The Norbergvalue of that left and right joints added together, will give the “sum Norbergvalue” which is reported on the certificate.

Your dog and CHD
Owners of dogs that have been officially x-rayed often ask the vet that made the x-rays for his or hers opinion on the state of the hip-joints. If the first impression of the vet is milder than the definitive score, the dog’s owner is often disappointed. The HD-panel advises veterinarians not to make any remarks on the condition of the hip-joints. From dogs which are not clear of Hipdysplasia, but who do not show any signs from the outside, it is impossible to predict if they will have problems sooner or later. Also when severe deformations are found, this does not mean that the dog will have problems. It is wise to see to it that the dog will not be too heavy and also that otherwise stressing the hip-joints is avoided. This does depend on the demands the owner does have on his dog as pet or workingdog. In case of doubt, you can always consult with your vet.

HD and breeding
The CHD-rating only gives information about the hip-joints of the individual dog. Information about the CHD-rating from parents, littermates and offspring will contribute to a more accurate impression about the breeding-quality of that individual dog. It is very important that breedclubs have access to all results and that all HD x-rays that are made also are send to official rating by the HD-panel, even if the veterinarian sees obvious deformations in the hip-joints. Best is to only breed with HD – (HD A) dogs, because chances of CHD in the offspring are reduced to a minimum that way. With breeds that only have a limited population and breeds in which CHD often occurs, this is unfortunately not possible. Within the breed-club, breeders should consult with the Kennelclub, GGW department, about what is necessary and possible in the name of CHD prevention and what is accepted in the name of breeding.

If there are any questions after reading the above, you can contact, preferably by mail:
Raad van Beheer, afdeling GGW, Postbus 75901, 1070 AX  Amsterdam
Telephone/Fax +31 (0)20-6794462

Up | Hip Dysplasia | CHD ratings compared | Elbowdysplasia | Movement | Teeth | Cherry Eye

Nancy Koper